There are many possible reasons why you’re a five-hour sleeper, some by choice and some due to necessity. Perhaps you think you can accomplish more by sleeping less. Or maybe you consider short-sleeping a badge of honor. Similarly, a demanding work schedule or a teething newborn may be what’s barring you from meeting your sleep need.
The point is, you think you can survive (if not thrive) on five hours of sleep (or four, six, or seven). Unfortunately, you’re doing yourself a major disservice and in more ways than you might think. Denying yourself the sleep you need — and accumulating sleep debt in the process — is the surest way to short-circuit every aspect of your life.
Ahead, we show you how only five hours of sleep is synonymous with sleep deprivation and what that means for your waking life.
After one night — or several successive nights — of short sleep (defined as less sleep than you biologically need -- more on that later) , we overrate our ability to stay awake and alert. You probably think, “Hey, I’m actually not doing so bad after all!”. The reality is, you’re actually doing very poorly!
Here are five compelling reasons to dispel that common misconception, and show you why you aren't coping as well as you thought:
If you think you belong to the minority that does well on little sleep — i.e., five hours of sleep — the odds are close to nonexistent. As Dr. Thomas Roth says in Matthew Walker’s book, Why We Sleep, “The number of people who can survive on 5 hours of sleep or less without any impairment, expressed as a percent of the population, and rounded to a whole number, is zero.”
Matthew Walker further elaborates, “It is far, far more likely that you will be struck by lightning (the lifetime odds being 1 in 12,000) than being truly capable of surviving on insufficient sleep thanks to a rare gene.”
Getting only five hours of shut-eye means you aren’t meeting your biological sleep need — an individual trait that’s genetically determined, like your height or eye color. The majority of adults need 7-9 hours of sleep per night to function optimally, with a true average of 8 hours and 10 minutes to prevent neurobehavioral impairment. (The RISE app will tell you your EXACT sleep need for better energy during the day.)
Your sleep need may also change as you age. To illustrate, preschoolers average 10-13 hours per night while older adults (aged 65 years old and above) usually need about 7-8 hours.
Moreover, even if you think you’re sleeping for five hours per night, you’re probably actually asleep for even less. Research points out that we tend to subjectively inflate our sleep duration compared to the actual amount of shut-eye we get. To compound the issue, sleep fragmentation is a pretty common phenomenon, as many tend to stay awake up to an hour per night. Spending five hours in bed almost certainly doesn’t equal five hours of sleep.
Falling asleep as soon as your head hits the pillow makes you think you are a “good” sleeper. And you may chalk up mild sleepiness during the day to not having your morning coffee yet or think it’s perfectly normal.
However, falling asleep immediately can signal extreme sleep deprivation. Meanwhile, what you feel is mild sleepiness is in fact another warning signal of tremendous sleep debt. In fact, William Dement, one of the founders of the field of sleep medicine, was often found quoting his world-famous mantra, “Drowsiness is a red alert.” Even if you're only feeling slightly tired during the day, it's actually an indication that your body is already suffering from sleep deprivation.
Thanks to the dubious concept of “sleep hacks,” much of the population is lured into focusing on sleep quality rather than sleep duration. We assume we can cram, with the right tips and tricks, our individual sleep need into only five hours of slumber and get away with it. Sadly, that’s not how sleep works.
Science explains the sleep cycle for humans consists of four stages: Stages 1-3 are non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep while stage 4 is REM sleep. Every night, we cycle through these stages roughly 4-6 times, averaging 90 minutes in each stage. As a result, many of us aren’t physiologically primed to survive on only 5 hours of sleep a night.
Furthermore, research indicates that sleep restriction over one night, or multiple nights consecutively, preserves slow-wave sleep (stage 3) while reducing stage 1, stage 2, and REM sleep. Since REM sleep is needed for vital functions like memory consolidation and problem-solving, shortening this sleep stage will likely lead to a cognitive decline in your waking moments.
Besides that, recovery sleep following sleep restriction shows the brain self-regulates in the face of sleep deficiency, invalidating “sleep hacks.” In other words, you as a person cannot dictate how much time you will spend in a particular stage of sleep. You can only remove the impediments to naturalistic, healthy sleep.
As humans, we adapt biologically within a few nights of short sleep. You may think you’re doing fine, but in reality, your performance is in decline. In as short as a few days, your subpar energy levels start to feel normal, while behind the scenes, your daytime functioning and overall well-being is subjectively crumbling.
Another reason why you might not feel particularly tired after a night or several nights of short sleep, is due to a surge in your cortisol levels (a stress hormone that boosts alertness) the next day. On top of that, your circadian rhythm (i.e., your body’s internal clock that dictates your energy peaks and dips throughout the day) is still marching on in the background, as it operates independently of your sleep drive. High stress levels coupled with your circadian energy peaks allow you to keep functioning (albeit not at your best) even when you’re massively sleep-deprived. (Do note that these peaks could be so much better if only you’d met your sleep need!)
Contrary to your game plan of sleeping less to do more, sleep deprivation prevents you from productively using those extra hours of wakefulness. Matthew Walker explains it perfectly in his book Why We Sleep, "The recycle rate of a human being is around 16 hours. After 16 hours of being awake, the brain begins to fail." In other words, you think you’re doing yourself a favor with less sleep, but that’s just not true cognitively, emotionally, or physiologically.
Five hours of sleep (or four, six, or seven, or, more to the point, any period of time that is less than your biological sleep need) will result in sleep deprivation, which comes with both immediate and long-term side effects.
Acute sleep deprivation, which we refer to in the RISE app as your sleep debt, is the amount of sleep you’ve missed out on relative to your sleep need over the past 14 days. What many people don’t realize is, the immediate effects of sleep debt far outweigh the subtle cues that you aren’t functioning and feeling your best. Its repercussions can be felt:
For example, not sleeping for 24 hours impairs your cognition to the extent of having a blood alcohol level (BAC) of 0.10%, which is higher than every state’s legal limit.
But the effects of sleep debt aren’t just from pulling an all-nighter. These negative effects will mount from slightly missing your sleep need over multiple nights — such as only sleeping for seven hours per night when your sleep need is eight hours. To illustrate, getting an hour less of sleep over 10 consecutive nights will make your brain as impaired as it would if you had stayed up for a full 24 hours -- even though it very well might not feel that way.
Despite the extra hours of wakefulness, you are neither functioning optimally nor are you achieving much at all.
Not meeting your sleep need over many years will result in chronic sleep deprivation, and its negative effects are even more insidious, primarily due to being in a constant cortisol influx. Sure, cortisol feels good in the short term. Yet, continually pumping your body full of it is one of the reasons why so many debilitating chronic diseases are associated with chronic sleep deprivation.
Research shows not meeting your sleep need over time can lead to an increased risk of health problems, such as:
Sacrificing a few hours of sleep to get more things done isn’t just futile. It’s also shortchanging your overall health and wellness, and consequently, your quality of life.
You may choose to get fewer hours of sleep because you want to achieve more each day. That’s the ironic thing, though — to be at your best, you first have to get enough sleep to meet your need.
That’s why we created the RISE app to help people meet their sleep need every night so they can feel better and perform better every day. Here’s how the app can help you:
But keep in mind, life tends to throw us curveballs, which may disrupt your usual sleep schedule and bump your sleep debt up to more than five hours. If things get off track, you don’t need to stress. Nor do you have to go from a 5-hour sleep habit to your actual sleep need overnight, especially with existing work and societal obligations that may be hard to shift around in your schedule.
Instead, prioritize and celebrate the incremental improvements. Go to bed 15-30 minutes earlier tonight to get more sleep over the course of a couple of weeks. If you find yourself slightly drowsy during the day, nap during your afternoon dip (which shows up on your “Energy Schedule” in the app) to better maintain your energy levels. With simple, gradual adjustments to your sleep and wake routine, you will eventually meet your sleep need every single night.
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